BACON, ROGER° (c. 1214–1294), English philosopher and Hebraist. Bacon studied at Oxford (probably) and – from 1236 at the latest – Paris. He learned Hebrew, and his transliterations, reflecting Sephardi pronunciation, imply Jewish assistance. Bacon's advanced criticisms of scientific and theological methodology led Bonaventura, general of the Franciscans, to stop his teaching at Paris; after Stephen Tempier's Paris condemnation (1277) of the 219 propositions and of magical instruction, he was allegedly imprisoned for 14 years by Jerome de Ascoli, later Pope Nicholas IV. Meanwhile, in 1266, Clement IV (Guy du Foulques) had directed him to disregard his order's instructions and to write up, in extenso, his scholarship and views on ecclesiastical abuses. Bacon's resultant writings contain frequent references to Hebrew as the fountainhead of all philosophical knowledge and as indispensable for Bible study, all Latin versions being corrupt. While criticizing andrew of Saint Victor for his addiction to Jewish exegesis and deprecating contemporary acknowledgment of Andrew as authoritative, Bacon commended the former's resort to the original Hebrew text. He extolled Robert Grosseteste's endeavors to promote Hebrew studies, and a certain "homo sapientissimus" (probably William of Mara) for pursuing them. Besides substantial competence in biblical Hebrew, Bacon evinced interest in the Jewish calendar and a grasp of linguistic science; he appreciated the affinity of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic as comparable to that of the Romance languages. He contemplated writing a Hebrew grammar, and a fragment – the earliest known Hebrew grammar by a named gentile scholar in the West – survives (Cambridge Ms. Ff. 6. 13; appended to Bacon's Greek Grammar, ed. E. Nolan, 1902). Hirsch, who assembled and translated the relevant passages in Bacon's works, tentatively connected some correspondence (Ms. Toulouse 402) regarding Hebrew grammar and   the calendar with Bacon (S. Berger, Quam Notitiam… (1893), 37–38). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: S.A. Hirsch, in: JQR, 12 (1899/1900), 34 35; B. Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (19522), index; A.G. Little, Roger Bacon (1928). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Clegg, The First Scientist: A Life of Roger Bacon (2004); ODNB online. (Raphael Loewe)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Bacon, Roger — born с 1220, Ilchester, Somerset, or Bisley, Gloucester?, Eng. died 1292, Oxford English scientist and philosopher. He was educated at Oxford and the University of Paris and joined the Franciscan order in 1247. He displayed a prodigious energy… …   Universalium

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  • Bacon, Roger — (c. 1214–c. 1292)    Philosopher and Scientist.    An Englishman, Bacon received much of his education in Paris. He joined the Franciscan Order in c. 1257 and was part of the household of Cardinal de Foulques, who was to become Pope Clement IV.… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Bacon, Roger — (c. 1214–1292) English philosopher and scientist, known as Doctor Mirabilis (‘marvellous doctor’). A member of the Franciscan order, Bacon began his career studying the previously forbidden works of Aristotle . However, he mixed his admiration… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Bacon, Roger — See Metaphysics and science in the thirteenth century …   History of philosophy

  • Bacon, Roger — ► (1214 94) Filósofo y naturalista inglés, llamado Doctor mirabilis. Expuso la necesidad de las matemáticas y del método experimental, que él mismo aplicó en su obra más importante, Opus maius (1265). Otras obras: Opus minus, Opus tertium,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • BACON, ROGER —    a Franciscan monk, born at Ilchester, Somerset; a fearless truth seeker of great scientific attainments; accused of magic, convicted and condemned to imprisonment, from which he was released only to die; suggested several scientific inventions …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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